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Aphrodisiacs, scientific references


Maca - Lepidium meyenii

Cicero A, Bandieri E. & Arletti, R. J. Ethnopharmacol, 2001;75(2-3): 25-9.

Dini A, Migliuole G, Rastrelli L, et al. Food Chemistry, 1994; 49: 347-349.

Gonzales G, Ruiz A, Gonzales, C, et al. Asian J Androl, 2001;3:301-303.

Johns T. J. Ethnobiology, 1981;1(2):208-212.

Quirós CF & Cárdenas RA. Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) In: Andean roots and tubers: Ahipa, arracacha, maca and yacon, Ed. by Hermann M. & Heller J., pp 175-195. 1996.

Quirós CF, Epperson A, Hu J, Holle M, Economic Botany, 1996; 50(2):216-223.

Zheng B, He K, Kim C, et al. Urology, 2000; 55(4): 598-602.

Muira Puama - Ptychopetalum olacoides

Hagers Handbuch, der Pharmaceutischen Praxis, Hänsel R., Keller K., Rimpler H., Schneider G., Springer-Verlag.

Schultes R.E., and Raffauf, The Healing Forest. Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia, R.F. Dioscorides Press, 1990.

Duke J.A., Handbook of Medicinal Herbs, 1985 p.398.

Bucek E. U., Fournier G., Dadoun H., 1987, Planta Med, Vol. 53, 2, p. 231.

Werbach, M.R., Murray M., 1994, Botanical Influences on Illness, A Sourcebook of Clinical Research. Third Line Press, Tarzana, California.

Waynberg,J.(1999): The role of complementary medicine in sexual dysfunction. First International Conference on sexual disorders. Article in press.

Waynberg, J. & Brewer, S., 2000, Advances In Therapy, vol 17, no. 5: 255-262.

Waynberg, J. Unpublished, article from:

Horny Goat Weed - Epidemium

Dell´Agli M, Galli GV, Cero ED, et al. Potent Inhibition of Human Phosphodiesterase-5 by Icariin Derivatives. J Nat. Prod. 2008;71(9):1513-17.

Xin ZC, Kim EK, Lin CS, et al. Effects of icariin on cGMP-specific PDE5 and cAMP-specific PDE4 activities. Asian J Androl 2003;5(1):15-8.

Tribulus terrestris

Adiakan PG, Gauthaman K, Prasad RN, et al. Proerectile pharmacological effects of Tribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cevernosum. Ann acad Med Singapore 2000;29:22-26.

Adimoelja A, Ganeshan Adaikan P. Protodioscin from herbal plant Tribulus terrestris L improves the male sexual functions, probably via DHEA. Int. J. Impotence Research. 1997:9; Supp. 1.

Arsyad KM. Effect of protodioscin on the quantity and quality of sperms from males with moderate idiopathic oligozoospermia. Medika 1996, 22 (8): 614-618.

Viktorov I, Bozadjieva E, Protich M, et al. Pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, toxicological and clinical studies on protodioscin. 1994, IIMS Therapeutic Focus.

Yan W, Ohtani K, et al. Steroidal saponins from fruits of Tribulus terrestris. Phytochemistry 1996;42(5):1417-22.


Pittler MH, Ernst E. Trials have shown yohimbe is effective for erectile dysfunction (letter, comment). BMJ 1998; 317:478.

Pittler MH (Yohimbe in therapy of erectile dysfunction). Fortschr Med 1998; 116:32-33.

Riley AJ. Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder. Bj J Clin Pract 1994; 48: 133-6.

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